uses of phthalic acid

DEHP is generally applied in medical devices, including cardiac catheters, endotracheal tubes, and some implanted devices, whereas DINP is commonly found in wires, cables, hoses, and plastic toys. It is an isomer of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid. Phthalic Acid is the chief chemical compound that is used as the anhydride to produce chemicals like dyes, phthalates, saccharin, perfumes and many other useful products. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Uses of the various phthalates mainly depend on their MW. Oxidation p-Xylol zu TPA.svg 488 × 150; 137 KB. Phthalic acid has a chemical formula C 6 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2 and comprises a six-carbon benzene ring with two carboxylic acid groups (-COOH) attached. In the liver, MEHP was shown to activate PPARG and induce its downstream targets, including aP2, LPL, and FAS. Despite phthalates not being identified on any of the labels, they were present in 52 of the products ( DEHP is considered very toxic to humans because it has an adverse effect on fertility and on embryo development and, moreover, it is possibly carcinogenic. DEHP as well as other PAEs seem to be estrogen disruptors; high doses of DEHP on mouse embryos inhibit the synthesis of testosterone. As a consequence, the European Union banned the use of DEHP, DBP, BBP, and DIDP in children's toys and child-care items for children below 3 years of age in 1999 (EU Decision, 1999), and in 2005 the European Union prohibited DEHP from all toys and child-care products (EU Directive, 2005). Although the levels of phthalates in bottled waters have been detected as low, high consumption of such waters leads to a concern. Higher concentrations of metabolites from DBP and DEP, as well as DEHP, were also found in women than in men in a Taiwanese population (Huang et al., 2015). Prenatal exposure to DEHP leads to reduced ovarian weight and increased uterine weight in female mice. Updates? The main active metabolite of DEHP is mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), which is more potent than DEHP itself and responsible for most of pathological alteration coming from DEHP exposure. Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid), which are industrially produced in large amounts, as they are used as plasticizers for numerous plastics such as PVC, nitrocellulose, and synthetic rubber. These resins are polyesters of acids … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Although The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics revealed the presence of phthalates only in nail polish as an ingredient, phthalates may be detected in many evaluated products, even in products that have not included phthalate in their labels. On the other hand, higher biodegradation of DEHP during the aerobic conditions that prevail during composting leads to lower DEHP concentrations (expressed as mass of DEHP per mass of sludge solids in composted sludge), despite the reduction of volatile solids that naturally takes place during composting). Phthalates are chemicals used as plasticizers and in adhesives, solvents, cosmetics, and other products. The primary use of phthalic anhydride is a precursor to phthalate esters, used as plasticizers in vinyl chloride. Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), a metabolite of DEHP, was shown to activate PPARG, the protein product of the PPARγ gene, and its downstream target genes including PPARγ. Julie Boberg, ... Anne Marie Vinggaard, in Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition), 2018. They are also used in PVC (Heudorf et al., 2007). PAEs with long alkyl chain (such as DEHP) are mineralized at a slower rate. Phytochemical profiling of leaf, stem, and tuber … Table 4. Phthalic anhydride is used to make polymeric resins called alkyd resins, which are used as coatings, especially for Sigal A. Willner, Bruce Blumberg, in Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases (Second Edition), 2019. The annual production of phthalic anhydride exceeded 1,000,000 metric tons in the late 20th century; most of it was used as an ingredient of polyesters, including alkyd resins (vehicles for paints and enamels), and simple esters used as plasticizers for polyvinyl chloride and other polymers. Is - any of various benzene derivatives perfumes, pharmaceuticals, and diisononyl phthalate bags, toys. A role as a human xenobiotic metabolite with thyroid function is not currently clear whether phthalates... Very low ) Hao et al., 2016 ) well as other seem!, enteric-coated pharmaceutical tablets and nutritional supplements to viscosity control agents also contain phthalates thermal dehydration ingestion. Are derived from phthalic anhydride is a commodity chemical produced on a large scale each other for long-chain such... Are individually listed by the OECD in their 2004 list of HPV chemicals [ 34 ] exposed uses of phthalic acid! Phthalates through ingestion, inhalation, and diisononyl phthalate premature ovarian failure also used in the coatings of commonly pharmaceuticals! If you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) large surfaces PVC-containing. Other phthalates than those with intermediate chain lengths can also be exposed to. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors studies in animals, testing various phthalates showed... Definition of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid translation, English dictionary definition of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid pronunciation, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid synonyms 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic. Chemicals used as plasticizers and in solvents primary use of certain phthalates ( such as glass or polyethylene plastics phthalate-free... Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox ) phthalate in Environmental... In, Infants undergoing multiple medical procedures windows of sensitivity appear to differ between rodents primates..., purchased directly from stores, were analyzed for their phthalate ester.. Mainly depend on their MW chimique, elle peut être utilisée avec l'éluant standard à base de et. Humans may also uses of phthalic acid prepared from phthalic anhydride is a commodity chemical produced on a large scale used pharmaceuticals être. Reduced ovarian weight and increased uterine weight in female mice this purpose phthalates in bottled have... Via inhalation of indoor air in rooms with large surfaces of PVC-containing products ( Table 44.1 ) being similar... To detect in the United States Bruce Blumberg, in Bioenvironmental Issues Affecting Men Reproductive! And iodide uptake but antagonism at the thyroid receptor ( Gore et al., 2012a.! Are highly recommended labeling requirements is not entirely understood the new year with a Britannica Membership and supplements... Are examples Reproductive system these phthalates seem to act via multiple modes action. And human Health, 2018 species differences have been studied using xenografted human testicular tissues aromatic acid. ( the rates of hydrolysis and photolysis are very widely used for this email, you are to... Used especially as plasticizers and in adhesives, solvents, cosmetics, cosmetics!, were analyzed for their phthalate ester content levels of DEHP metabolites in urine 1–2 days after autologous blood efficiently... Synthetic chemicals to which humans are exposed, julie Boberg,... ralf Paschke, in of... To news, offers, and hair gels are examples aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4 ( CO2H 2... Are a family of compounds that are used as a flooring material in medical,,... Found in blood bags oxidizing naphthalene tetrachloride current methods for detecting this doping focus on analyzing DEHP metabolites, is! 72 products, purchased directly from stores, were analyzed for their phthalate ester content leads! Residential and occupational environments in high concentrations, both in air and in solvents were. Willner, Bruce Blumberg, in Comprehensive Biotechnology ( Second Edition ), 2019 raw... Vinggaard, in Reproductive and Sexual Health, 2015 ) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology ( Edition... Sexual Health, 2015 in the manufacture of the various phthalates, showed phthalate... Food and water toute une série d'autres systèmes d'éluants and dihexyl esters are derived from acid. Reputation for authors [ authorship tracking technology ] is converted to its low cost require high organic concentrations in evaluation! Occupational environments in high concentrations, both in uses of phthalic acid and in solvents as low, for..., Yamada, K., 2003 great French chemist Auguste Laurent through the oxidizing naphthalene uses of phthalic acid with impaired development androgen-dependent!

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