uses of phthalic acid
DEHP is generally applied in medical devices, including cardiac catheters, endotracheal tubes, and some implanted devices, whereas DINP is commonly found in wires, cables, hoses, and plastic toys. It is an isomer of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid. Phthalic Acid is the chief chemical compound that is used as the anhydride to produce chemicals like dyes, phthalates, saccharin, perfumes and many other useful products. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Uses of the various phthalates mainly depend on their MW. Oxidation p-Xylol zu TPA.svg 488 × 150; 137 KB. Phthalic acid has a chemical formula C 6 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2 and comprises a six-carbon benzene ring with two carboxylic acid groups (-COOH) attached. In the liver, MEHP was shown to activate PPARG and induce its downstream targets, including aP2, LPL, and FAS. Despite phthalates not being identified on any of the labels, they were present in 52 of the products (http://www.environmentalhealth.ca/fall02pretty.html). DEHP is considered very toxic to humans because it has an adverse effect on fertility and on embryo development and, moreover, it is possibly carcinogenic. DEHP as well as other PAEs seem to be estrogen disruptors; high doses of DEHP on mouse embryos inhibit the synthesis of testosterone. As a consequence, the European Union banned the use of DEHP, DBP, BBP, and DIDP in children's toys and child-care items for children below 3 years of age in 1999 (EU Decision, 1999), and in 2005 the European Union prohibited DEHP from all toys and child-care products (EU Directive, 2005). Although the levels of phthalates in bottled waters have been detected as low, high consumption of such waters leads to a concern. Higher concentrations of metabolites from DBP and DEP, as well as DEHP, were also found in women than in men in a Taiwanese population (Huang et al., 2015). Prenatal exposure to DEHP leads to reduced ovarian weight and increased uterine weight in female mice. Updates? The main active metabolite of DEHP is mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), which is more potent than DEHP itself and responsible for most of pathological alteration coming from DEHP exposure. Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid), which are industrially produced in large amounts, as they are used as plasticizers for numerous plastics such as PVC, nitrocellulose, and synthetic rubber. These resins are polyesters of acids … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Although The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics revealed the presence of phthalates only in nail polish as an ingredient, phthalates may be detected in many evaluated products, even in products that have not included phthalate in their labels. On the other hand, higher biodegradation of DEHP during the aerobic conditions that prevail during composting leads to lower DEHP concentrations (expressed as mass of DEHP per mass of sludge solids in composted sludge), despite the reduction of volatile solids that naturally takes place during composting). Phthalates are chemicals used as plasticizers and in adhesives, solvents, cosmetics, and other products. The primary use of phthalic anhydride is a precursor to phthalate esters, used as plasticizers in vinyl chloride. Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), a metabolite of DEHP, was shown to activate PPARG, the protein product of the PPARγ gene, and its downstream target genes including PPARγ. Julie Boberg, ... Anne Marie Vinggaard, in Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition), 2018. They are also used in PVC (Heudorf et al., 2007). PAEs with long alkyl chain (such as DEHP) are mineralized at a slower rate. Phytochemical profiling of leaf, stem, and tuber … Table 4. Phthalic anhydride is used to make polymeric resins called alkyd resins, which are used as coatings, especially for Sigal A. Willner, Bruce Blumberg, in Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases (Second Edition), 2019. The annual production of phthalic anhydride exceeded 1,000,000 metric tons in the late 20th century; most of it was used as an ingredient of polyesters, including alkyd resins (vehicles for paints and enamels), and simple esters used as plasticizers for polyvinyl chloride and other polymers. Is - any of various benzene derivatives perfumes, pharmaceuticals, and diisononyl phthalate bags, toys. A role as a human xenobiotic metabolite with thyroid function is not currently clear whether phthalates... 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